Monthly Archives: May 2013

Computer System Chapter 11

The fundamental operation in the client-server model is the transaction. A client-server transaction consists of four steps: 1. When a client needs service, it initiates a transaction by sending a request to the server. For example, when a Web browser needs a … Continue reading

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Computer System Chapter 10

A Unix file is a sequence of m bytes: B0, B1, . . . , Bk, . . . , Bm−1. All I/O devices, such as networks, disks, and terminals, are modeled as files, and all input and output is performed … Continue reading

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Computer System Chapter 9

With virtual addressing, the CPU accesses main memory by generating a virtual address (VA), which is converted to the appropriate physical address before being sent to the memory. The task of converting a virtual address to a physical one is known as address … Continue reading

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Computer System Chapter 8

Modern systems react to these situations by making abrupt changes in the control flow. In general, we refer to these abrupt changes as exceptional control flow(ECF). Exceptional control flow occurs at all levels of a computer system. when the processor detects that … Continue reading

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Computer System Chapter 7

Static linking. The linker combines relocatable object files to form an executable object file p. . Relocatable object file. Contains binary code and data in a form that can be combined with other relocatable object files at compile time to create an executable … Continue reading

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Computer System Chapter 6

Random-access memory(RAM)comes in two varieties—static and dynamic. Static RAM (SRAM) is faster and significantly more expensive than Dynamic RAM (DRAM). SRAM is used for cache memories, both on and off the CPU chip.  DRAM is used for the main memory plus the … Continue reading

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Computer System Chapter 5

A good strategy is to start by looking carefully at the code for the inner loops, identifying performance-reducing attributes such as excessive memory references and poor use of registers. we can often determine the time (or at least a lower bound on the … Continue reading

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